What to eat to reduce your risk of recurrence of triple-negative and other forms of hormone-negative breast cancer.
So, the doc has scared the wind (or whatever) out of you, told you that your cancer—triple-negative, or some form of hormone-negative—is highly aggressive yet has fewer treatment options than hormone-positive. Been there, done that. Tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors offer no benefit. What now?
After researching this disease for the three and a half years since my diagnosis, I have learned a great deal about how diet reacts to hormone-negative forms of cancer. Below is the diet that I follow. So far, so good. I am past the magic three-year mark and I feel darn good. Elsewhere in this blog are specific posts that offer research details on each of these dietary choices.
Fruits and vegetables. This is a huge key. Aim for five servings a day. My approach:
• A breakfast smoothie with blueberries (antioxidants), flaxseeds (cancer-fighting fighting fiber)), bananas, black cherry (more antioxidant) juice, and yogurt (bone-building and cancer-fighting calcium). I figure this gives me 2.5 servings of fruits and one serving of calcium.
• Juiced veggies every evening. This includes 3-4 carrots, 1-2 leaves of kale, 1/8 cabbage, 1 bunch parsley, 1 stalk celery, ¼ apple, ¼ lemon. My super-juicing husband uses a Champion juicer, which takes the pulp out and leaves only the juice. This gives me 2- 3 servings of veggies and is heavy on cancer-fighting cruciferous vegetables—kale and cabbage. The lemon, apple, and celery really help the taste.
• Spinach, broccoli, asparagus, green beans, romaine and other dark greens throughout the day as side dishes. I have found that it is true that the more you eat something, the more you will like it. I used to only tolerate broccoli if it came smothered in cheese. Now I eat it raw and unadorned.
Low fat
I avoid fried foods, use healthy fats such as olive oil instead of butter and cream, and go mainly vegetarian. I use oil and vinegar on my salad, lemon oil on veggies, and olive or flax oil on my whole grain bread. For treats, I have nuts, air-popped popcorn, whole grain crackers, and low-fat cheese.
COMPLEX CARBS
I limit my processed carbohydrates—sugar, white bread and pasta—and eat 1-2 servings of whole grains a day. Look for the word “whole” on the label. Multigrain breads are not whole grain unless they include whole wheat, rice, oats, or other grains, so watch out for trick labels. A good serving of whole grains will have 3 grams of fiber per serving.
Vitamins and Minerals
I try to get as many of my goodies in my diet, but I find I need some supplements to assure I get everything I need. I take:
• 1000-2000 IU of vitamin D. It would be great to get this through the sun, but I live in Iowa, so that’s not going to happen for a good portion of the year.
• Folic acid—800 mg daily. This is especially important if I have alcohol.
• Calcium—1200 mg. I figure I get at least half of this with yogurt and cheese during the day, so I take 600 mg daily in supplement form. Make sure you take a calcium supplement with magnesium, as this helps calcium enter the system and keeps calcium from causing constipation.
• Omega 3 fatty acids. I take this in the form of fish oil, 450-500 mg per day of combined EPA/DHA.
• A multi-vitamin, to assure I get enough vitamin A, B, C, and E, plus minerals.
ORGANICS
I buy organic milk and cheese to avoid the added hormones and antibiotics in conventional dairy products even though my disease was hormone-negative. Why mess with unnatural additives?I buy organic versions of the Environmental Working Group’s Dirty Dozen —a list of fruits and vegetables that are high in pesticides, when I can. I seldom eat meat.
Calorie limits
I am 5’9”, so I can have 1500-1800 or so calories a day. I also exercise at least 30 minutes six days a week, so I can occasionally afford a few more calories without gaining weight.
ALCOHOL
Even though research shows that alcohol is most dangerous for hormone-positive disease, I choose not to take a chance. I have my beloved martini once or twice a week. I have wine, perhaps, on a third day.
CAFFEINE
I drink decaf tea and coffee, and keep the coffee to a cup a day, as even decaf has caffeine.
Choose your partner well
My husband is a great cook and he has his eye out for my health. He makes my juice every day, finds yummy low-fat recipes, and keeps the fridge full of healthy foods. I am a lucky woman.

For more information on a cancer-fighting diet, check out my book, Surviving Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.  You can get a free signed copy just by donating $25 to this site.  Click the Donate button on the right to donate through PayPal.   You’ll then get an email from me asking how you want your book signed and where you want it sent.  Thanks!  And hugs.

85 thoughts on “A Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Diet

  1. Anonymous says:

    First, so sorry for the slow response. I was traveling and did not take my computer so couldn't get to the blog. Next time, email me, as I always have my blasted phone. Second, so sorry for the diagnosis. Do you have the book Life Over Cancer from the Block Center in Illinois? Their focus in on integrative cancer treatment and the book is full of suggestions for diet. So you might check out the book and, if possible, check out the center itself. The book has suggestions for a treatment support diet and some action steps that might make sense. If you have Amazon Prime, you can get the book ASAP: https://www.amazon.com/Life-Over-Cancer-Integrative-Treatment/dp/0553801147And the Block Center is at https://www.amazon.com/Life-Over-Cancer-Integrative-Treatment/dp/0553801147They do specifically mention vitamin D, but you can get a lot of that naturally right now. And from what I have read, more is not better, but you might supplement the sun with a normal 2000IU pill. Also, cruciferous veggies such as broccoli, cabbage, kale are excellent, but are antioxidants, so it might be good to talk to an integrative physician about how to moderate your intake to to interfere with treatment. Hope this helps. If not, let me know.

  2. Anonymous says:

    Hi Patricia,I read your book when I was first diagnosed with TNBC a year and a half ago. Now, I have a recurrence and I'm stage IV (liver, lymph nodes behind my sternum and potentially in my lungs). I have been given a year to live. I will be starting chemotherapy (nab-Paclitaxel) and immunotherapy as part of a clinical trial tomorrow. I have been told to limit my intake of anti-oxidant rich foods while on the trial. I understand why that is, but I feel that it is unfair not to let me be as healthy as I can possibly be. I have learned not to tell the clinical trials nurse that I eat things like matcha or goji berries because, as soon as they find out, they tell me to cut it back. I have been taking vitamin D (10000 IU). I was wondering if you could tell me how much you recommend and also if there are diets tailored more to reducing metastases. I guess I am already on a low methionine diet since I was vegetarian and am now vegan – with the exception of a little wild salmon or trout. I love dessert and have completely eliminated that. I have two young daughters and I would like to live for them, so any help you might offer would be much appreciated. Thanks so much for writing your book!

  3. Anonymous says:

    I can't suggest therapy, but you do have a great prognosis, similar to mine. I had chemo, but only AC, and eight years later, I am still here with NED. But all cases are different. Ask for a second opinion if you don't trust the suggestions of your doctor. Do you have my book? You can order it on my blog–it is in the right column. I offer several profiles of women with TNBC and their choices of treatment. A couple did not do chemo–one because of a bad reaction to it, one because her doc did not prescribe it. All the rest of us had it, though. There is no targeted therapy for TNBC, so chemo is all we have–and it works. Again, all cases are different.

  4. Anonymous says:

    Hello,Recently had left breast mastectomy and tumor size is 2cms. All Lymph nodes are clear and No Metastasis.Diagnised as T1N0M0 and TNBC. Is there any risk if not opted for Chemo? Please suggest whether ot not to go for chemo.Thanks!!

  5. Anonymous says:

    I periodically check into Patricia's blog, did so today and read many of the comments written over the past few years. Thank you Patricia for continuing to support so many survivors. I was diagnosed in '08, 2cm 1 node, 4 chemos and radiation, wall recurrence in '10 in 2 places, right mastectomy–and I have been clean every since and no more treatment. I followed the Keith Block Center diet, exercise plan, alkaline water and blood test/supplement regimens and still do. I have never felt better. I am 70 and still working full time. I believe that Block regimen has made the difference. Never give up and never under estimate the power of nutrition, exercise, supplements and fight. Penny C

  6. Anonymous says:

    Ally: I strongly believe in listening to your body, and it is telling you to take a break from chemo. Abraxane has shown good results for TNBC, but it also has side effects. Meanwhile, have you tried dietary changes and homeopathic approaches to your infection? Some foods, such as mushrooms, can make yeast infections worse. Some resources to help: http://www.webmd.com/women/10-ways-to-prevent-yeast-infectionshttp://www.disabled-world.com/artman/publish/candida_.shtml

  7. Anonymous says:

    I am 44 years young and was diagnosed Stage Ib, Grade 3 TNBC in December 2013. Lymph nodes were clean. I had a double mastectomy in January 2014. The post-surgery pathology report indicated that all cancer had been removed in the initial biopsy. In March, I began 4 cycles of chemotherapy – Adriamycin and Cytoxin. This was supposed to be followed by Taxol, but I had an immediate allergic reaction. I have not had any chemotherapy for nearly 6 weeks as I have a horrid yeast infection and the medications have not worked. The MO wants me to start Abraxane. I am struggling with whether to continue the chemo regimen. Fear is a powerful motivator but the chronic, unresolved infection has me very concerned. I also have iron-deficient anemia. I could really use some guidance on dealing with the iron-deficiency, anemia, and infection. Many, many thanks to you for this positive blog and opportunity,

  8. Anonymous says:

    If you are uncomfortable with your doctor's advice, get a second opinion ASAP. You deserve that.

  9. Anonymous says:

    I'm scared Im stage 1 IDC lumpecty removed 7 lymph nodes all clear margins good 2mm tumor. Oncologist felt chemo wasn't need everything ive read no matter the size chemo was used for treatment. Brca 1 negative as well. I'm doing 36 rounds of radiation..

  10. Anonymous says:

    Hi Pat, I've been sitting here in tears after reading all the bad stuff about being triple negative. I just learned yesterday, after meeting with my doctor for post op. I am stage 1, grade 3, all lymph nodes were clear. So I felt pretty good about everything until they told about being triple negative. I meet with the oncologist on fri. to discuss chemo. I know the Lord is with me, I do get fearful at times as I have 4 children. I need to be here for them. God bless you for helping us. Nicole

  11. Anonymous says:

    Hi Pat: I found your blogger site last year when I was going through chemo. Followed with 33 radiation treatments. I was stage 2 Triple Negative, three lymph node involvement. I had/have clean margins. I was diagnosed at 65, May 24, 2012, I don't have the BRAC gene; tested for 1 & 2. My sister did die of inflammatory carcinoma at the age of 50, 21 years ago.I was always a healthy eater, but did like my frozen yogurt at night and my red wine. I have tweaked my diet to be healthier. I follow a low fat diet, eat plenty of salads, fruits, grains, chicken, salmon, and take vitamins. I do eat organic foods and wash all foods. I still have my wine, but only when I go out. I treat myself to ice cream on occasion. I stay as healthy as I can, have a good attitude and am looking forward to a long, cancer free life. I am a lucky woman, I still have my mom who is 90. She had stomach cancer, and has heart disease. She just had cataract surgery so she can see better.I have a lot to be thankful for and will not let this bump in the road stop me from living.Thanks,Lynda

  12. Anonymous says:

    Hi Patricia! Just stumbled upon your blog. I was diagnosed with TNBC last September. Lumpectomy, chemo and radiation. Finished radiation May 28, 2013 – started having breathing issues 3 weeks later. Was hospitalized for a week; came out on time for my oldest daughter's graduation. Barely 2 weeks later, I experienced major SOB (gotta love that term!! Shortness of breath!! 🙂 ) just got out of the hospital after one week and guess what, the cancer has spread to my lungs and liver. Not that I want to rain on anybody's parade!!! My medical team is totally under shock and you can imagine so is my family. Everything had gone so well!! I am the exception to the rule. Having 2 teenage daughters made it even harder, but after the tears last week, I got back in the fighting mode. I started chemo again yesterday; we were always into healthy eating, but even more now! Cut out dairy, meat, booze, fats (except olive oil and sesame oil for my tofu!); extra servings of veggies, kale, ginger, turmeric, garlic, chilies or hot sauce, juicing, you name it. Luckily I have the best husband who always was a veggie freak!!! We are also looking at some alternative treatment. Will keep you posted. Ciao for now!

  13. Anonymous says:

    Lumpectomies followed by radiation have been shown to be as effective as mastectomies in most women–and I think that would include you, with your stage cancer. And your prognosis should be excellent, with clear margins and no spread. Yay! The asian diet is often good for cancer, even if you can't do the typical fruits and veggies here. The fact that you usually have low-fat diets high in omega 3s is a great thing.

  14. Anonymous says:

    Hi pat! Ima 26yrs old unmarried asian girl..i was diagnosed with TNBC stage 2a,grade 3..i had lumpectomy with clear margins in june…what do you think i would survive it? And should i have to had mastectomy rather than lumpectomy? And also being living in asian country most of fruits and veggies you have mentioned in your diet plan are not available in my country..what to do then?

  15. Anonymous says:

    just discovered this website as i continued to browse and research info about my situation.I am a 52 year old black nigerian diagnosed of triple negative stage 3c breast cancer in march 2012.i have since done surgery(9 nodes involved),chemo,and about 36 radiation sessions which concluded in nov 2012.I live in Nigeria ,though i received all treatment in the USA under a private cost as i did not have insurance,so this drained me financially.MY Oncologist seems to keep a track on we with the CEA TEST results of which was 7 very recently.The pet/cat scan done in feb 2013 showed no sign of spread to any organs ,but my oncologist is concerned about the CEA at 7 and does not want to call for another pet/cat scan as i have done 3 in the last one year.I have had to change diet and lifestyle for the better. But i am really worried about the CEA results that refuse to go down.Though i feel well,but we all know that a lot goes on even when the decease is not noticed.Can someone out there tell me what is going on and what other tests will help monitor my degree of cure.I have all the info about what to eat and what not to eat.I have been on bigwig protocol/high fruit and veg/essiac tea/pawpaw leaves/lemon rind therapy for about 3 months and i feel good.My major concern is why the CEA remains high.What other test can tell me the progress report.?

  16. Anonymous says:

    Thanks so much, Lyn. I am glad the book helps and really appreciate your support in promoting it. Yes, we are all different and researchers are really making that point. I have not read about the fasting diet. I will have to check that out. I am not a big fan of fasting generally, but know of others who swear by it. (As I said, we are all different,) Hugs.

  17. Anonymous says:

    Hi BridgetteI share your anxiety of having lymph nodes involved. I had 2/12 but one was massively infected, thats their words and i think it said vascular too so im in same position. Im newly married, 39 with a one year old boy and i cant bear to think of anything else but beating this. Patricia's book has been my saving grace and whenever i feel scared i read all the positive information and remind myself we are all different and you can not medicalise the human will to live and win! My mum had ovarian cancer and after diagnosis the Dr gave her 6 months, she lived 7 years! Its ok to be scared, we all are, but try to channel any negative energy into fighting, as there are lots of people who had positive nodes that live on cancer free but they just dont come to these sites to write about it, they are busy living.Patricia just want to thank you for your book. Im part of a younger womens network or BC where many young women are TN. Ive posted about your book as i think its the best therapy money can buy for TN. Thank you for taking the time to research and write about it.An interesting area of research i have recently found is intermittent fasting and cancer, especially the impact on IGF-1 hormone, have you read about it? Also the impact it has during chemo and on side effects. I'd be interested to hear your thoughts. Im on the path of trying anything to help so my intermittent fasting has begun under the guidance of Dr Michael Mosely who as published a book called 5:2 diet. To me it just makes sense, there is definitely something in it so im giving it a go as ive nothing to lose. I have 4 chemo's left and will keep you posted of my side effects. My last chemo came with horrendous Side effects so im hoping i will see quite a difference.Once again thank you so much for all the hard work you do for TN… You truly are an angel!Lyn xx

  18. Anonymous says:

    Bridgette: I am glad you like the book and that it has been helpful. Thanks so much for writing.Several of the women in the book had affected lymph nodes–especially Rebecca, the first one I profiled, and she is more than 30 years past DX. There is more and more evidence that affected lymph nodes are really not a predictor of serious disease, so I would not make that my focus.I presented the information from research about aspirin and Metformin but am not really recommending them. I do not take either. I can't take aspirin as it really does a number on my stomach. And Metformin has not been approved as a cancer drug. That could be in the future, but it is not on the table now.I hope that makes sense.Pat

  19. Anonymous says:

    Hi PatI bought your book online this weekend ( for Kindle) and have not been able to put it down, it is filled with great info and such an easy read. Thank you for putting this together for those of us that are TN. I was dx in May 2012 stage 111, grade 3. I am 52 and was in good health at time of diagnoses, exercising regularly and not carrying any extra weight , had also just had a routine mammagram 3 weeks previously which was clear , so when I found a lump under my arm, and I was susequantly dx, this all came as a big shock. I have just last week completed 20 sessions of radiation, having had a lumpectomy ( 2.2 cm tumour) and a axillary dissection 6/17 in June 2012, followed by 16 weeks of chemo FEC and docetaxol. I do spend a great deal of the internet searching for some encouragement that there is still hope for someone like me who is TNBC with positive nodes. Whenever I come across longtime survivors who are TN, they dont seem to have had lymph nodes involved. I am really desperate to connect or hear about others with more than 4 positive lymph nodes who have made the 3 year mark. I feel like I am grasping at straws here. I try so hard to be positive, and I am generaly a v positive person but I am finding this very difficult. I your book you mentioned taking baby Asprim – 3to 5 days a week, do you suggest the coated or uncoated type. And you also talked about Metformin – I have read about this trial, but would rather take this medication independantly, have you heard much about other doing this . I look forward to hearing from you , and thank you again for your great blog. Bridgette ( Canada)

  20. Anonymous says:

    Hi PatI bought your book online this weekend ( for Kindle) and have not been able to put it down, it is filled with great info and such an easy read. Thank you for putting this together for those of us that are TN. I was dx in May 2012 stage 111, grade 3. I am 52 and was in good health at time of diagnoses, exercising regularly and not carrying any extra weight , had also just had a routine mammagram 3 weeks previously which was clear , so when I found a lump under my arm, and I was susequantly dx, this all came as a big shock. I have just last week completed 20 sessions of radiation, having had a lumpectomy ( 2.2 cm tumour) and a axillary dissection 6/17 in June 2012, followed by 16 weeks of chemo FEC and docetaxol. I do spend a great deal of the internet searching for some encouragement that there is still hope for someone like me who is TNBC with positive nodes. Whenever I come across longtime survivors who are TN, they dont seem to have had lymph nodes involved. I am really desperate to connect or hear about others with more than 4 positive lymph nodes who have made the 3 year mark. I feel like I am grasping at straws here. I try so hard to be positive, and I am generaly a v positive person but I am finding this very difficult. I your book you mentioned taking baby Asprim – 3to 5 days a week, do you suggest the coated or uncoated type. And you also talked about Metformin – I have read about this trial, but would rather take this medication independantly, have you heard much about other doing this . I look forward to hearing from you , and thank you again for your great blog. Bridgette ( Canada)

  21. Anonymous says:

    Stage II TNBC is quite survivable. Yes, it is ideal to have clear margins, but even without that, the odds are with you. There is great hope for your situation. Does the doc plan to do chemo?

  22. Anonymous says:

    I am very encouraged by your site and thank you for all your research into this horrid disease.

  23. Anonymous says:

    I am newly diagnosed with tnbc. I had a lumpectomy where the margins were mostly good except for the posterior where the surgeon said she had gone right up to the chest wall and couldn't go any further – the margin in this area is a mere 0.5mm. I see an oncologist on tuesday and am dreading chemo. I have stage 2, grade 3, IDC tumour size 2.2cm, with DCIS tumour size 2.9cm. 2/3 lymph nodes have isolated tumorr cells and there is lymph vascular invasion present. Is there hope for my situation? I am terrified.

  24. Anonymous says:

    I believe strongly in fish oil, but I haven't read enough to convince me of GLA or hemp oil capsules. If anybody has research to share on this, I would greatly appreciate your posting it. Thanks much!

  25. Anonymous says:

    One of the most frustrating things for me about this blog is that I cannot always contact the women who write to me through it. I can if they have a Google account and leave that information. And I do try to respond. But I don't always know how things unfold for my beautiful friends out there, so I don't know the progress of the woman who wrote in last year. If you are dealing with a recurrence, I would get to the best cancer center I could–whichever is closest to you, ideally one connected to a university. There might also be clinical trials you can enroll in. I hope that helps. And I hope that we hurry up and get targeted treatment for metastatic TNBC.

  26. Anonymous says:

    There was a comment on this site last year October 14, 2011. I do not see any response to her request and am wondering if anyone would know how to contact her. I was sad when I realized she may not have been back because she was not heard. Can anyone help? Nicole said…Thanks for this information. I was diagnosed in February with TN (1.5 cm tumor), had 18 weeks of chemotherapy (TAC) prior to surgery and still ended up with an 8.5cm tumor in my left breast and 10 nodes removed. I found out Monday that it has spread to my back, liver and nodes in my chest. I am seeking any and all information I can to survive this. I am a divorced mother of two with a 92 year old father I am caring for. Thank God for your blog on healthy living. If there is anything else I can do, any other suggestions, please post.

  27. Anonymous says:

    Hi Patricia,Caring for my partner dx TNBC in July. Neo adjuvant, ACT. Tumor from 5cm to 1cm. Finished A&C 2 weeks ago & now on 2nd Taxol of 12 wkly. I read your diet plan, supplements etc and I wanted to add something for your review. I have been giving her GLA – along with Fish oil and Hemp Oil capsules. I also give her 1ML mega dose B12 injections per week. That tumor (for which we were given an inkling of a chance for minor shrinkage) is now so small the oncologist says he thinks it may just have been reduced to scar tissue at this point. Her cbc's have been consistently “perfect”. Will have PET in the next few weeks, and after Tax, bilateral Mast & recon. Just wanted your opinion on the supps I included in her health plan.

  28. Anonymous says:

    It would be difficult to avoid antioxidants entirely and still have an overall healthy diet. The diet I recommend is pretty broad, with antioxidants plus a wide range of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, beans, nuts and seeds. The doc might be warning your sis especially about taking supplements, and I would wait until after treatment to try any antioxidant supplements–those could be an overload. But eating a healthy plant-based diet should be good for her–if she can handle it. During chemo, we often just have to settle for whatever we can digest.

  29. Anonymous says:

    o: I am so happy I found your blog. My sister (40 yo) was diagnosed 4 weeks ago with triple negative breast cancer and as as you may imagine we have bee on a reseach frenzy what to eat when being treated with taxol. The doctor advises AGAINST antioxidants and soy based products, she says that recent research has shown that these products can interfere with treatment. I was looking at your diet and see that antioxidants are an improtant part of it. Do you have any insight about a site that would offer a diet low in these products? Thank you so much for your positive blog and may God continue blessing you with health and happiness. Karen

  30. Anonymous says:

    I have diagnosed with the Triple Neg Cancer one year ago Stage 2. I think so far so good. But since then I am suffering terrible skin irritation especially on my neck and back. Problem never gone no matter how hard I try to eat organic food, herbs , etc. my breast still feel pain when I touch it but my doctor said that it is quite normal. Sharing the experience with the nurse, they said most of the patient have the same problem. After the Chemo, all my fingers feel quite paralized and not getting any better till now. Recently there are a Dr.Budwig Therapy getting so popular in our place. It seemed a lot of good news heard from the cancer patient. I just look at the diet that you recommend & it is quite similar to the therapy including the flax oil, flax seed, berries,etc. I do not like the smell of the flax oil and the cottage cheese but I think I will still try it for a certain time. May be you all can have a look of the website in germany for reference. I think they have a link too in USA.I must share with you that I am quite sure that Over-stress is definitely one of my main cause, I have bad habits of sleeping really late, extremely workaholic and I am telling anyone I know to avoid these. Unfortunately I myself still have to work so hard to make a living.Will share some more information with you if any.

  31. Anonymous says:

    All veggies in our juice are fresh. If you eat kale as a veggie with a meal, steaming is best, as it keeps it from getting too gooey.

  32. Anonymous says:

    Hi Pat,I love reading your blog and get a lot of encouragement from them. A question about how you use kale. When you juice your veggies, do you use raw kale or does it have to be cooked/steamed?

  33. Anonymous says:

    Rita: What does the doc say? This could be an infection, a reaction to treatment, or any number of other things. It needs to be checked out.

  34. Anonymous says:

    Hi there this is the most encouraging site i have come across since searching the net. I have TNBC recurrence and am currently on further treatment of chemo. The biggest problem i have is that a sore has appeared on the old wound on the breast and is very uncomfortable. the breast is also very swollen. have you come across anything like that? if so any advice. thank you.

  35. Anonymous says:

    I was diagnosed with TNBC too only in my case I had 25+ lymphnodes. I had a mastectomy with immediate reconstruction. I'm 33yrs old and 2 months out of treatment. I know what my odds are but I can only do my best and leave the rest to God cos truly we are in control of nothing.

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